Can anybody explain karyotyping?
Karyotyping is a test to examine chromosomes in a sample of cells. It is used primarily to help identify genetic problems as the cause of a disorder or disease. The test can be performed on almost any type of tissue including amniotic fluid, blood, bone marrow, and tissue from the placenta. The sample is placed into a special dish or tube and is grown in a lab. Cells are later taken from the sample and stained. The lab specialist then uses a microscope to examine the size, shape, and number of chromosomes in the sample. The stained sample is photographed to show the arrangement of the chromosomes (known as the karyotype). Based on the number and arrangement of the chromosomes in the karyotype, one can identify certain genetic issues.
Can anyone explain DNA amplification by PCR?
The PCR (polymerase chain reaction) replicates DNA under lab conditions with three steps to control the whole replicating process with temperature:
1. Denaturation – DNA sample is heated to separate it into two single strands
2. Annealing – DNA primers attach to the 3’ ends of the target sequence
3. Elongation – A heat-tolerant DNA polymerase binds to the primer and copies the strand.
Each cycle of this doubles the amount of DNA replicated and amplifies the total number of DNA.
How was the Human Genome Project constructed?
The Human Genome project was essentially a map of all of the DNA base pairs that are possible in humans. It showed genetic similarities and diversity within humans, as well as aspects of evolution of all living organisms that were unknown before the project was constructed.
What are the different phases and function of the phases occurring in interphase?
G1 (Gap 1) protein synthesis, S (Synthesis) DNA copied, G2 (Gap 2) more and a larger quanitity of protien synthesis to help with growth of celluar organelles.
The point of Interphase is to prep the cell for mitosis by replicating the chromosomes :)
G1- the cell makes a variety of proteins that are needed for DNA replication.
S Phase- all of the chromosomes are replicated.
G2- the cell synthesizes a variety of proteins.
A karyogram shows the chromosomes of an organism in homologous pairs of decreasing length. it is used to deduce sex and diagnose Down syndrome in humans.
Can someone please explain how Mendel used pea plants to discover the principles of inheritance?
Mendel used pea plants as a way to discover the principles of inheritance, he did so by deducing that genes come in pairs and are inherited, one from each parent. By simply counting the peas and observing each one closely he was able to come up with the terms "recessive" and "dominant".
If one gene is further away from the centromere of a particular chromosome than another, why is its crossing over frequency higher?
Can anyone explain the different modes of inheritance?
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