How do nucleosomes regulate transcription?
Nucleosomes are a central core of eight histone proteins that have DNA coiled around the protein. The proteins work together to bind the DNA which contributes to the pattern of supercoiling, which regulates transcription.
Also don't forget that sometimes your experiences in life (stress, etc.) can change your body chemistry and this can cause methylation in this process which causes tighter binding, which in turn can affect how genes are expressed.
What is the basic process of transcription and translation?
Transcription: The process by which the information in the strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA). The DNA stores genetic material in the nuclei of the cells.
Translation: A step in protein biosynthesis where the genetic code carried by mRNA is decoded to produce the specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.
What is the difference between the primary and secondary structures of translation?
The primary structures consist of the sequence and number of amino acids in the polypeptide. The secondary structure consists of the formation of the alpha helices and beta pleated sheets with hydrogen bonding. The secondary structures basically respond to the primary structures because the amino acids in the primary structures fold in ways that creates patterns in the sequence, which are the secondary structures.
Can you describe the function of supercoiling and how it is important in a prokaryotic cell?
Supercoiling is when dna strands are twisted together to reduce the amount of space required for packaging. This allows for more efficient storage of the dna.
Neiva is correct for eukaryotes, we need supercoiling for more efficient reproduction of the DNA, but the question was actually about PROkaryotes, so let me try to tackle this. In prokaryotes we have a ring of DNA that packages itself for reproduction by creating loops on itself. It doesn't exactly coil because coiling actually requires a protein called chromatin. Here's a detailed explanation: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-microbiology/chapter/prokaryotic-genomes/
How do morphogens affect an embryos development?
During the development of an embryo, the morphogens move the cells that are restricted in a certain region and they begin to carry them around finding responsive cells which then activates gene expression.
How does transcription and translation work in prokaryotes that is different from eukaryotes?
In a prokaryotic cell, transcription and translation are coupled: translation begins while the mRNA is still being synthesized. In a eukaryotic cell, transcription occurs in the nucleus, and translation occurs in the cytoplasm.
How is DNA's double helix separated before/during replication?
DNA's double helix has to be separated before replication occurs. The strands are made of weak hydrogen bonds which make them easy to separate.
Seriously Hitt? You know this one, but I'll add to what Mansoor said by adding that the process is assisted by Gyrase and Helicase which help separate the strands.
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