What is the end result of cellular respiration?
And don't forget the waste products of CO2 and H2O!
Outline of the calvin cycle.
1)Carbon Fixation-CO2 binds to RuBP with help from Rubisco
2)Reduction Phase- 6 carbon molecules split into two 3 carbon molecules
3)Carbohydrate Fixation- G3P turns into carbohydrates
4)Regeneration Phase- G3P + ATP used to make RuBP
Explanation of the Krebs cycle.
The Krebs cycle occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion and occurs only when oxygen is present. Its main function is to oxidize acetyl CoA generated from glycolysis. 1 ATP molecule is generated per turn of the Krebs cycle by phosphorylation and 2 ATP molecules are formed per molecule of glucose. Most of the chemical energy is transferred when electron carriers NAD and FAD are form enzymes NADH and FADH2.
Compare and contrast between competitive and non-competitive inhibition.
Competitive will interfere with the active site so that substrates can't bind to it. Non-competitive inhibitors will bind anywhere but the active site, causing it to change shape that also won't allow the enzyme to bind to the substrate.
Why are lipids essential to digestion and absorption?
Lipids can be utilized in digestion and absorption by bonding to some materials and making them non-polar for distribution in the blood stream.
Can someone explain oxidation and reduction in detail?
Oxidation and reduction as processes can be remembered by the acronym OIL RIG, Oxidation Is Losing, and Reduction Is Gaining. What this refers to is the gain or loss of electrons. If you gain electrons you will be more likely to reduce/break down as the attraction between molecules gets reduced. If you lose electrons, a molecule is more likely to be attracted to another and is usually associated with bonding. Check out this Khan Academy video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_KyyVhlUDNU
What is the difference in cell respiration between eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
I think the big difference is that prokaryotes don't have mitochondria like eukaryotes. This means that prokaryotes often go through cell respiration but it all goes down in the cytoplasm. Now you might think this is problematic because they won't be able to produce the big ATP gain using the ETC, but I believe that the production of ATP in glycolysis is enough for a prokaryote.
What are all the ways enzymes can be changed/denatured?
Well, remember the experiments that we earlier this year were done to explore this very topic. The first way that we looked at this was through changing the pH and the second way was by changing the temperature. I'm sure there are other ways, but these are the main ones you should commit to memory.
Why exactly do the components of cellular respiration all take place in different locations within the cell and mitochonidra? Is it more effective? What do the locations have to do with the function?
This is a really good question! I'll take a stab at it and if someone finds out more, I'll be happy to revise what I've written. First let me say that the answer might be evolutionarily based. Glycolysis is usually enough to keep prokaryotes alive, and it is believed that mitochondria are the result of prokaryotes consuming each other. Why might this symbiotic relationship stick? Because it works really well. Mother Nature doesn't mess with things that work well. So imagine a primitive organism that goes through glycolysis consuming another primitive organism like a proto-mitochondrion and each finds the energy harvesting of the other helpful. BAM! You end up with what you see in cellular respiration. ....Or maybe it's because of something else? Let me know what you find out.
What is discrete and continuous variation?
That was supposed to go on genetics and evolution
No big deal. Discrete variation is the idea that some traits you either have them or you don't (tongue curling or not), but continuous variation is when you have a trait to a certain degree (tall to short, dark to light). Discrete tells us that the trait is probably a single gene, and continuous tells us it is probably polygenic.
I'm having trouble understanding phosphorylation.
Phosphorylation is just the act of attaching a third phosphate onto ADP. this happens when H+ ions that are in the inner membrane space zip though ATP synthase embedded in the membrane and make enough energy to affix ADP and another phosphate together to make ATP in the matrix. SO, it's just the putting together of ADP and a Phosphate together to make ATP.
What is the definition of the term "metabolic rate"?
the number of calories/"energy" you burn during a 24-hour period just to keep your body's most basic processes going
I like what Morsal had to say about this, but I would also say don't just think of the calories burned, but as the net sum of all of the reaction in your body. Calories are a measure of this overall activity.
What is responsible for regulating the body's metabolism?
The thyroid gland. It also regulates normal growth and development.
Imagine a graph the the y-axis labeled metabolic rate and the x-axis labeled temperature. Name this reaction and list its effects on the human body.
I think you are talking about a graph of metabolic rate. The greater the temp, the greater the rate of the reactions. You can see this in ectotherms (reptiles, insects, etc.) which depend on external sources of heat for energy. BUT this general concept has it's limitations in that you need to realize that too much heat can denature proteins/enzymes/etc. and kill a critter as well.
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