Stages of human development.
There are several answers to the stages part of human development, depending on if you're asking about development before birth or throughout one's life, but there is a well known psychologist, Erik Erikson, who developed an 8-stage model for human development. His stages are as follows:
1. infant (0-1): main "psychosocial crisis" is trust and mistrust
2. toddler (2-3): main "psychosocial crisis" is independence
3. preschooler (3-6): main "psychosocial crisis" is initiative vs guilt
4. school-aged (7-12): main "psychosocial crisis" is inferiority
5. adolescent (13-18): main "psychosocial crisis" is ego
6. young adult (19-45): main "psychosocial crisis" is intimacy vs isolation
7. middle aged adult (30-60): main "psychosocial crisis" is self absorbtion
8. old adult (50+): main "psychosocial crisis" is integrity vs despair
Can you list the detailed stages of digestion that occur in the human body?
1. Food is taken into the body by entering the mouth and this is called ingestion.
2. Food is then broken down physically and chemically which is called digestion.
3. The food that is digested are absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells which is called absorption.
4. The digested foods are converted into the fluid and solid parts of a cell which is called assimilation.
5. Undigested food then becomes waste and is exited through the rectum which is called elimination.
What are the four macromolecules and what are their functions?
For digestion, do you know the role of the bodily fluids? Amylase, protease, lipase, and others? Where are these secreted? ...and why?
Can someone describe the five different types of white blood cells? (neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil, monocyte, lymphocyte)
Monocytes have a longer lifespan than many white blood cells and help break down bacteria.
Lymphocytes create antibodies to defend against bacteria, viruses, and other potentially harmful invaders.
Neutrophils kill and digest bacteria and fungi. They are the most numerous type of white blood cell and the first line of defense for infections.
Basophils are small cells that send out an alert when infectious agents invade your blood. They secrete chemicals such as histamine, a marker of allergic disease, that help control the body's immune response.
Eosinophils attack and kill parasites, destroy cancer cells, and help with allergic responses.
These are the crash course explanations too- super helpful in breaking down the types and getting a good visual :)
What does it exactly mean for a person to become immune and how does one acquire immunity?
To be immune to something means that your body is resistant to it. One way to become immune to something is by getting the actual disease. This allows for your body to recognize the virus and produce antibodies to fight against it. Another way to acquire immunity is through vaccinations.
immunity occurs when the body begins to fight off foreign invaders. immune is when a specific bacteria dosen't effect you anymore
There's also passive immunity (passed on vs aquired through experience.) This can happen in the womb when the mother passes immunity to the fetus via the placenta.
Active immunity is your body's dirrect reponse and can be built up via vacines or exposure.
Can we go more in depth on the different types of absorptions (simple diffusion, facilitated, active, and exocytosis)? What role do they each play?
Simple diffusion- net movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. This movement will continue until the molecules are evenly distributed across the membrane. Only small, non- polar molecules can freely diffuse.
Facilitated- passive movement of molecules across the cell membrane with the aid of a membrane proteins.
large, polar molecules need facilitated diffusion to move across the membrane. Carrier proteins, channel proteins and potassium channels facilitate this diffusion.
Active transport uses energy to move molecules against a concentration gradient. A solute will bind to a protein pump and the ATP will cause the pump to change shape and the molecule can then be moved across the membrane.
Exocytosis is the process by which large substances exit the cell without crossing the membrane. Vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and expel their contents.
What is the path of blood flow in and out of the heart and the structures of it all?
Through the superior and inferior vena cava, then to the right atrium, the through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle, then through the pulmonic valve to the pulmonary arteries to the lungs. The blood picks up oxygen in the lungs, and then flows from the lungs through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium, then through the mitral valve to the left ventricle, then through the aortic valve through the aorta to the body.
Describe the roles of T and B cells in immunization.
B cells produce antibodies that target antigens. T cells are for regulation and release cytokines to activate specific B cells to attack the antigen.
@ Brooke's top question: What are the four macromolecules and what are their functions?
1. Carbohydrates: structure of plant cell wall, energy storage, receptors
2. Lipids: membrane structure, energy storage, insulation
3. Nucleic Acids: store information
4. Proteins: enzymes, structure, receptors, transport
What are the different skin cell types and where are they primarily located?
The skin is mostly made up of squamous cells, basal cells, and melanocytes. They are primarily located in the outer later of the skin, the epidermis.
Can you explain why the cell size ratio matters?
The cell size ratio matters because if the ratio is too small, then substances will not enter the cell as quickly as they are required and waste products will accumulate because they are produced ore rapidly than they can be excreted.
Sliding Filament Theory steps?
Check out this article: https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/the-sliding-filament-theory-of-muscle-contraction-14567666
Here's a quizlet I found for it! There's probably other good quizlets too:
If a virus lacks a metabolism, how does that make them immune to antibiotics?
Great question Marco! Some antibiotics prevent bacteria from creating a cell wall/membrane. If you are a virus you don't have a wall (they do have a capsule) to be prevented. I guess the big idea goes back to structure and function.
Explain Glycolysis. What is the process in which it occurs?
Well, I thought I had responded to this one, but it looks like it disappeared! Glycolysis is the first part of cellular respiration where a 6 carbon glucose molecule is transformed through reduction by NAD+ into two 3 carbon molecules called pyruvates in the cytoplasm. These pyruvates then diffuse into the mitochondria for the Krebs cycle to occur
Can someone explain positive and negative feedback loops?
Feedback Loops can change systems in the body/environment.
Positive feedback loops amplify change. Positive loops tend to move a body from its normal state and make it more unstable.
Negative feedback tends to lessen change. This tends to hold a system to some equilibrium state making it more stable.
Think of hunger response as one of these loops. Getting hungry and then feeling full
These last examples I got from: https://www.albert.io/blog/positive-negative-feedback-loops-biology/
What are alpha and beta cells & what do they do?
I'm pretty sure you are referring to the cells of the pancreas. Alpha cells secrete a hormone called Glucagon, and beta cells produce Insulin. These help us control the blood sugar in our bodies. Can you guess which one increases and which one decreases levels?
This is your opportunity to engage in those parts of the curriculum that are difficult for you and to help others out by digging up answer for them and posting them here. I hope that you will be a part of our community!